Diffusion and cascades have been studied for many years in sociology, and different theoretical models have been developed. However, experimental validation has been always carried out in relatively small datasets. In recent years, with the availability of large-scale network and cascade data, research on cascading and diffusion phenomena has aroused considerable interests from various fields in computer science. One of the main goals is to discover different propagation patterns from historical cascade data. In this context, understanding the mechanisms underlying diffusion in both micro- and macro-scale levels and further develop predictive model of diffusion are fundamental problems of crucial importance.